7月から日系4世を日本に受け入れ 若者対象に最長5年

法務省は、海外の日系4世の若者が日本で就労できる制度を設け、7月から受け入れを始める。一定の日本語能力を持つ18~30歳が対象だ。在留資格は「特定活動」で、年間4000人程度の受け入れを想定している。

政府は1989年の入管法改正で日系3世までを「定住者」として受け入れる在留資格を設けた。定住者は職種の制限を受けずに仕事ができる。このためブラジルやペルーなどの日系人が一時は30万人を超えるまで増加した。日系人は東海地方などの大手の自動車や電機メーカーの下請け企業の貴重な労働力となった。しかし、2008年のリーマンショックで企業は日系人を一斉に解雇。職を失った人たちの中には母国に帰る人が相次いだ。

リーマンショックによって、日系人が景気の調整弁のような形で雇用され、不要になれば即解雇という、極めて不安定な立場に置かれていた状況が露呈した。家族の呼び寄せで来日した子供や日本で生まれた日系人の日本語教育も大きな課題として浮上した。学校で十分な教育を受けられない子供が非行に走るなどの問題も発生した。

日本人との間に軋轢が起きるなど様々な社会問題も起きたが、その課題解決を余儀なくされたのは地方自治体だ。このため浜松市など外国人が多く居住する市や町が2001年に外国人集住都市会議を発足させ、対応策を協議し、政府へは数々の要望を突き付けた。

日系4世への訪日枠の拡大は、日本側の労働力不足が背景にあるが、日系人側からも日本政府に要望が出ていた。2017年10月に東京で開かれた第58回海外日系人大会(海外日系人協会主催)では大会宣言の中に「日系4世への新たな在留資格付与に十分な配慮を」と明記された。

今回は過去の経験を踏まえ、簡単な日常会話ができる日本能力試験N4レベルの語学力を条件とし、在留資格は1年ごとに更新。最長で5年間滞在できるが、通算で2年を超えて在留するには日本語能力をN3にレベルアップする必要がある。

また、預貯金や事前の就労見込みなど生計を維持できることや、帰国費用が確保されていることも入国条件とされる。3世までの「定住者」と大きく違うのは、家族の帯同ができないこと。永住を想定せず、期限を区切ったうえでの受け入れだ。

サポーターによる支援を条件にしていることも、従来の日系人受け入れと大きく異なる。日本側で彼らの日本語教育をはじめ、生活、医療、雇用などの各種支援を在留資格の申請の際などに報告することも必要だ。このように、4世の受け入れは3世までに比べてハードルが数段高くなっているのが実情だ。

ブラジルの場合は1980年代にハイパーインフレに見舞われ経済が困窮した。90年代の日本へのデカセギの急増は、国内景気が後押ししたことは否定できない。しかし、経済は持ち直し、最近は日本とブラジルの為替格差も縮小している。日系4世がどの程度日本に来るかは、不透明な状況のようだ。

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全日 第42回研究大会 日本キャリア教育... @ 筑波大学つくばキャンパス
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