「技能実習生にとっての日本」――誰のための実習期間延長なのか?

「技能実習生にとっての日本」――誰のための実習期間延長なのか?

法務省の統計によると、2017年6月末時点で、約25万人の技能実習生が日本に住んでいます。在日外国人は247万人ですから、10%を占め、留学生も約29万人ですから、約12%です。約1年前のデータですから、1年後には確実に増えているでしょう。多くの報道で、全体の20%以上を占める実習生・留学生が、日本の産業を支えているということを見聞きします。

昨年11月から一定の条件の下、実習期間の延長(+2年)・受け入れ人数枠の拡大を始めました。また、2018年4月には、「5年満了の実習生及び同等の能力を有するものにさらに+5年の在留を認める法案を提出する」という報道がありました。まだ、細則が決まっていないので、具体的なことはわかりませんが、この報道以後、介護業界を中心に歓迎ムードが高まっているように感じます。

現在でこそ、経済格差と、「日本」というブランドのおかげで、毎年、日本に来る実習生・留学生は増加しています。しかし、経済格差もいつまでも今のままではなく、日本というブランドも、こと「出稼ぎ先」に限っては、マイナス・イメージが増えていることも事実です。建設や縫製等の実習生は、非常に希望者が少なく、人材募集に非常に苦労しています。

決して多くない5年滞在を希望するベトナム人

日本の現場が期待している長期滞在型(3年以上)の外国人人材ですが、こと実習生及び、現在、「出稼ぎ留学生」と揶揄される留学生に限れば、10年どころか、まず5年の滞在を希望する人材も決して多くないと考えています。私がそう考える理由をいくつが挙げてみます。

(1)ベトナム人の家族に対する考え方が日本とは異なる点

日本で3年を満了し、+2年のつもり、帰国したとしても、空港で、3年ぶりに両親・配偶者・子どもをはじめとした家族に会い、故郷に帰って、さらに家族・親戚・友人に会い、昔懐かしいベトナム料理を食し、「やはり故郷がいい」と考えが変わっても全くおかしいと感じません。3年はもちろん、+2年も、家族帯同は認められていません。むしろ、家族愛が異常に強いベトナム(恐らく他の東南アジア諸国も同様でしょう)において、3年、離れることすら、空港で、抱き合って、目を腫らして、泣く泣く別れますから、そこからさらに+2年をヨシとする文化なり風土なのかと言われると、自信を持って、「そうだ」とは答えられません。私自身も父になって、わかりましたが、子どもがとても小さい状況で、3年も直接、顔を見られない状態は、胸が張り裂けるほど辛いです。この感覚は、ベトナム人に限らず世界共通でしょう。

(2)実習生の期間を延ばしても、制度上、全ての企業が人手不足の解消ができるとは限らない点

3年間は、例外を除き、基本的に、会社を変えることは非常に少ないですが、+2年は、同職種であれば、企業を変えることが可能です。送り出し機関も、間に入る監理団体も変更が可能です。愛社精神や御恩と奉公のような意識が日本に比べて希薄な実習生において、少しでも、待遇や人間関係に不満があれば、あっさり企業を変更されることでしょう。外国人に限らず、給料が高い企業に人材が集まるのは当然の流れです。今、自社で働いている実習生が、3年満了後も、仮に+2年の希望があったとしても、自社に残ってくれる保証はどこにもありません。

(3)ベトナム人にとっての幸せ

改めて言いますが、ベトナム人にとっての幸せとは、経済的な豊かさより、精神的な豊かさです。お金がたくさんあるよりも、家族と共に健康に過ごすことのほうが幸せだと考える傾向にあります。そのため、いつまでも家族が離れ離れの状態で、ヨシとは言えないのです。このお国柄を知らずに、実習生にWi-fi環境を与えない受け入れ企業も未だに少なからず存在しますが、それによって起こるリスクを全く考えられていないと非常に残念に感じます。

まして10年滞在を希望するベトナム人がどこまでいるのか

次に+5年(計10年)についても、どこまで希望者がいるのか懐疑的に見ています。理由は、+2年とほぼ同様です。

(1)二重のハードル

実習生の場合、+5年の資格は、5年を満了し、さらに試験合格等の一定の条件をクリアした場合に限るとの報道内容ですが、上記の通り、+2年の希望者が少ない可能性がある以上、まず、この+5年の入り口に立てる人材も同様に少ない可能性が高いです。この考え方は介護分野でも同様です。介護福祉士資格を取得した場合、「就労」への資格変更をできるとなっていますが、国家試験の受験資格を充たす人材がどこまで増えるのかは、現状、非常に不安視しています。

(2)仮に家族帯同が認められなかった場合

一時帰国等は、実習生に比べ、自由度は増すとは思われますが、それもタダではありませんし、基本的には離れ離れですから、足掛け10年もそれを望む人間がいるのかという問題があります。

(3)5年後なり10年後の人材送り出し国との経済格差の問題

現状でこそ、ベトナムの最賃がハノイ等の都市部で2万円にも満たず、世帯月収でも5万円に届かない家庭出身の実習生も多く、日本で、1ヵ月10万円から15万円もらえるとなれば、法外な出国費用を請求されても希望する人材はまだ存在します。ベトナムに限れば、毎年、最低賃金が上昇し、2018年現在、都市部で398万VND(2016年270万VND)ですので、ここ3年で、47%もアップしていることになります。昇給率は徐々に下がっていて、直近は6%です。仮に年率5%で進めば、5年後の2023年には500万VNDを超えます。※1円=211VND(2018年4月20日現在)

現在の平均月収は300~400USD/月と言われていますが、最賃とのバランスを考えると、5年後には、500~600USD/月の世帯数も多くなる可能性が非常に高いです。出稼ぎ労働力にとって、経済格差が2倍を切ったら、魅力が半減すると言われていますが、5年後で、辛うじて、2倍を維持できているかどうかという状態です。10年後に至っては…。

限界を迎えた技能実習制度

日本の産業構造として、ほぼ全ての業界で、中小企業が経済を支えています。さらに実習生を雇用している企業も圧倒的に中小企業が多く、その本音は「日本人より安いから」というのが必ずあります。人件費を抑えたい企業が、外国人が満足できる給与をいつまで提示し続けることができるのかという問題に必ず直面します。仮に家族帯同が不可だった場合、「人材は欲しいけど、家族も呼ばないで、期間満了後は帰国してね」という、相手の国・国民性のことを全く考えていない非常に自分勝手な制度であると言わざるをえません。

悲観的なことを書いていますが、私自身は外国人の受け入れには賛成です。日本の全業界が、外国人無しには成り立たない状況に陥っています。ただ、建て前が崩壊している技能実習制度、現行のまま期間を計10年まで延長することには賛成できません。現状ですら、既に歪が出ており、日々、ネガティブな報道ばかりがされています。もちろん、実習生を家族のように扱い、3年間、何ごともなく、笑顔で帰国する実習生が多数いることも知っています。ただ、それでも、この制度は限界にきていると言わざるをえません。日本側にしても、送り出す国にしても、外国人材本人にしても、制度に関わる全ての人間がwin-winの状態になれる制度設計が必要だと考えています。

実習生送り出し機関日本語教師寄稿者

投稿者プロフィール

大阪の商社を退社後、2013年10月、日本語教師養成講座修了。同年12月、日本語教育能力検定試験合格。2014年に渡越から約3年半、外国人技能実習生に日本語を教えている。

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7月
23
1:00 PM 令和4年度文化庁委託主任教員研修... @ オンライン(ZOOM開催)、AP東京八重洲、AP大阪茶屋町
令和4年度文化庁委託主任教員研修... @ オンライン(ZOOM開催)、AP東京八重洲、AP大阪茶屋町
7月 23 2022 @ 1:00 PM – 2月 13 2023 @ 6:00 PM
【申し込み締め切り】2022年7月12日㈫ 今年度も当協会では,文化庁委託日本語教育人材の研修プログラム普及事業のうち「日本語教育コーディネーター(主任教員)に対する研修」分野を実施することとなりました。それに伴い,担当講師育成研修を開催いたします。 本普及事業においては令和2年度から当該の研修を担当する講師を育成するための研修が義務付けられております。今年度の主任教員研修における「担当講師育成研修」においては,研修担当講師に求められる①主任教員研修を担当し実施する力,②主任教員研修を企画・運営する力,の獲得を目標に主任教員を育成できる人材の養成を目指します。 主任教員研修と担当講師育成研修を合わせて実施する研修は本普及事業ならではのものです。本研修の実績として,令和2,3年度の担当講師育成研修を修了した複数の者が実際に研修担当講師として主任教員研修で活躍をしています。 この貴重な機会にぜひご参加いただき,今後の日本語教育の発展に向けてさらなる研鑽を積んでいただくことを期待しております。 受講希望者におかれましては,募集要項を熟読の上,来る7月12日(火)までに,所定の方法にてご応募くださるよう,お願いいたします。   参加費無し(研修内容に応じた指導補助謝金,交通費,宿泊費をお支払いいたします。)
12月
10
1:00 PM 日本語支援ボランティア養成講座(... @ 本多公民館
日本語支援ボランティア養成講座(... @ 本多公民館
12月 10 2022 @ 1:00 PM – 1月 14 2023 @ 5:00 PM
外国人への「日本語の教え方」を初めて学ぶ方に適した講座です。 <養成講座開催日時> 2022年12月10日/12月17日/2023年1月7日/1月14日(土)午後1時~5時 全4日間 <講 師> 木戸恵子先生(獨協大学非常勤講師)  <会 場> 本多公民館(国分寺市) <受講対象者> 国分寺市及び近郊都市に在住・在勤の方 <定 員>   30名 (定員に達した後は、キャンセル待ちとなります) <受講料>   4,000円 ※受講料は、後日(11月中旬)、申込者に順次お送りする「受講ガイド」に従ってお振込みください。 <ご確認ください> 今日の感染状況を鑑み、「オンライン開催」に変更される可能性があることをご了承ください。変更の際は、決定次第、ご連絡させていただきます。  ★講座に関する詳細、および Q&Aはこちらをご覧ください。  https://www.1991kia.jp/nihongo-shien-kouza2022/
12月
11
1:00 PM 現場の最前線が知れる‼多文化共生... @ オンライン(Zoom)
現場の最前線が知れる‼多文化共生... @ オンライン(Zoom)
12月 11 @ 1:00 PM – 2:30 PM
【内容】 日本における在留外国人が年々増加している中、企業の外国人雇用や教育現場の日本語を習得できていない外国人留学生、外国につながる児童生徒との円滑なコミュニケーションや学習面での課題が問題となっています。 日本語教育とフォントの関係性についてUDフォントが有効であるという傾向が見えてきた中、今回のセミナーでは、現場の先生方と共に外国人留学生や生活者としての外国人の日本語教育の現状と対策、これからの課題を、実証試験の内容も踏まえながら「UDフォント」や「やさしい日本語」から始める日本語教育の支援について考えます。 ▼イベントの詳細・申込はこちら https://go.morisawa.co.jp/l/896081/2022-11-21/ngpt7 【概要】 日時:12月11日(日) 13:00~14:30 ※当⽇参加できない⽅も、お申し込みいただければ後⽇アーカイブ動画が視聴可能 参加費:無料 募集定員:1,000名 講師: 長崎短期大学 准教授 岩﨑 千恵 氏 崇城大学 就職課 課長補佐 公益財団法人 地方経済総合研究所 特別研究員 前田 和則 氏 熊本大学 教育学部附属特別支援学校 後藤 匡敬 氏 主催:株式会社モリサワ 【お問い合わせ先】 株式会社モリサワ 東京本社 営業企画部 公共ビジネス課 E-mail:public-biz@morisawa.co.jp

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