文化庁の日本語教育専門官が全各日協で講演

文化庁文化部国語課の小松圭二・日本語教育専門官が3月12日、新宿区市ヶ谷の私学会館で開かれた全国各種学校日本語教育協会(堀道夫理事長)の研究会で「文化庁における日本語教育政策―日本語人材の養成・研修の在り方について」と題して講演した。日本語教育推進議員連盟で日本語教育推進基本法(仮称)を制定するための議論が行われているが、小松氏の講演は基本法制定後の法的整備とも絡む内容。日本語教育の「質」が問われる中、日本語学校の今後の在り方とも関係する重要なものだ。

講演は先に文化審議会国語分科会がまとめた報告の紹介が中心。この報告は日本語教師の養成の在り方を定めた文化庁の指針を18年ぶりに改訂する内容だ。在留外国人の増加とそれに伴う日本語学校の急増、さらには多文化共生社会の地域づくりなど社会の大きな変化と課題が背景にある。文化庁はこの報告を日本語教師の質の向上に向けた新たな施策に反映させるという。

講演で小松氏は、国語分科会の報告を主に日本語学校の関係者に関わる部分を中心に説明。それによると、日本語教師の活動分野や役割は時代の変化とともに、大きく多様化したにもかかわらず、日本語教育の現場研修は、必要な内容が確立されておらず、研修の機会も極めて限られている、としている。

研修に関しては、現状では日本語教師に求められる資質、能力を養成段階において全て身につけることは困難だとして、「初任」「中堅」「主任教員」のそれぞれの段階に応じて教師に求められる資質や能力を伸ばすための研修が必要だという。併せて研修カリキュラムやプログラムの開発、実施が求められている、としている。

また、教育実習については、オリエンテーションをはじめ、授業見学、授業準備、教壇実習、教育実習全体の振り返り――の各指導項目に関する実習の内容を例示。日本語学校の教員研修では「5~20人規模のクラス形態での教壇実習をすることが重要である」と指摘している。

さらに教育内容については、人口減少と外国人の増加という時代の大きな変化に対応するため、養成段階から多文化共生(地域における共生)や多言語・多文化主義などを必須の内容としている。

小松氏の講演で示した報告は、今後、文化庁が「告示」としてオーソライズし、施策の中に反映される可能性があるが、日本語教育基本法が制定されれば、研修費などを政府が負担するなどの法的措置がとられることも考えられる。その意味では、これまで政府の関与がほとんどなかった日本語学校などの教育の在り方が大きく変化しそうだ。

石原 進(いしはら・すすむ)

石原 進(いしはら・すすむ)日本語教育情報プラットフォーム代表世話人

投稿者プロフィール

「にほんごぷらっと」の運営団体である日本語教育情報プラットフォーム代表世話人。元毎日新聞論説副委員長、現和歌山放送顧問、株式会社移民情報機構代表取締役。2016年12月より当団体を立ち上げ、2017年9月より言葉が結ぶ人と社会「にほんごぷらっと」を開設。

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